Variation Orders and Their Effects of Erbil Governorate Projects


  • Noori Sadeq Ali College of Engineering, Cihan University , Erbil-Iraq



construction; variation order; overruns; owner; contractor; consultant


Variation order plays an important role in calculating the final cost and time. The paper aims to determine the causes of variation orders in projects performed between 2007-2014 in Erbil governorate projects. Data was collected from contract documents. Performed in the Erbil governorate projects from 2007-2014. The study seeks to identify the most significant causes of delays by assessing the common causes of delays in terms of frequency, severity and 

important indices of owners, consultants and contractors related to the implementation of public construction projects in Erbil Governorate. The data acquired from the questionnaire given to the engineers involved in executing of these projects and 73 forms were returned. The results showed that the ranking of overall causes of variation order from highest  to lowest was  "Contractor's financial difficulties", " Change of plans or scope by owner", "The required labor skill are not available", "Differing site conditions", "Owner's financial problems", "Design change originated by owner", "Errors and omissions in design", " The required equipment and tools are not available", Inadequate working drawing details",  and " Change in design by the engineer or consultant". The source of   "Errors and omissions in design", "Inadequate working drawing details”, and Change in design by the engineer or consultant" is consultant.




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How to Cite

Ali, N. S. (2021) “Variation Orders and Their Effects of Erbil Governorate Projects”, Journal of Engineering, 27(5), pp. 75–88. doi: 10.31026/j.eng.2021.05.06.