Critical Evaluation for Grading and Fineness Modulus of Concrete Sands used in Sulaymaniyah City-Iraq

Authors

  • Muhammad Arf Muhammad Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9639-3897
  • Bilal K. Mohammed Sulaimani Technical Institute, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Region, Iraq https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5567-7989
  • Faris R. Ahmed Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Koya University, Koya KOY45, Kurdistan Region, Iraq https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6879-7157
  • Bayan S. Al Numan Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, International Tishk University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3419-8505

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.31026/j.eng.2021.10.03

Keywords:

Fine Aggregate Gradation, Sieve Analysis, Fineness Modulus, Clay Content, Standard Specification Limits

Abstract

Fine aggregates used for concrete works in Sulaymaniyah city frequently fail to meet the standard requirements for gradation and fineness modulus in cement concrete. This paper aims to critically evaluate gradation, fineness modulus, and clay contents of various natural sands produced and used for concrete work in the region.  Sixteen field sand samples were collected from various sites in Darbandikhan (5 samples), Qalat Dizah (5 samples), Koysinjaq (5 samples), and Piramagroon (1 sample) confirming to ASTM D75. The field samples were parted into test specimens based on ASTM C702. Then, sieve analysis was carried out on the oven-dry test specimens in compliance with ASTM C136. The test results of fine aggregates were compared with American, British, and Iraqi specification standards using ASTM C33, BS 882, and IQS No. 45. It was revealed that only three sands satisfy the ASTM gradation limits while others do not comply and are on the coarser side. Also, eight samples meet the requirements recommended by BS 882, whereas five samples meet limits by IQS No. 45. It was found that only three sands have the fineness modulus within the ranges recommended by ACI 211.1 and ACI 211.4, while the others have high values. Furthermore, it was found that all sands include an allowable amount of finer particles passing sieve size 0.075 mm. In order to improve particle size distributions, it is recommended to use the blending method to obtain a suitable fine aggregate from two or more failed sands.

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Author Biographies

Muhammad Arf Muhammad, Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Muhammad A. Muhammad is a Lecturer at Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah city, Kurdistan region, Iraq. He got the BSc degree in Building construction at University of Sulaimani, 2008 and the MSc degree in Structural engineering at University of Nottingham, Nottingham city, UK. He has taught several academic courses since 2009.  Currently he is a PhD student at University of Sulaimani. His research interests are in reinforced concrete structures, Recycled materials in concrete, fresh and hardened properties of concrete, FRP composite, structural engineering. Muhammad A. Muhammad participated in many conferences and published several researches in several journals.

Bilal K. Mohammed, Sulaimani Technical Institute, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Bilal K. Mohammed is an Assistant Lecturer at Surveying Department, Sulaimani Technical Institute, , Sulaiamni Polytechnic University, Kurdistan region, Iraq. He got the B.Sc. degree and M.Sc. degree from University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan region, Iraq. His research interests are in waste materials, structural engineering. Currently he is a PhD student at University of Sulaimani.

 

Faris R. Ahmed, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Koya University, Koya KOY45, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Senior structural engineer, Assist. Prof. in the department of Civil Eng, joined the work at Koya University since 2009. Gained a B.Sc. degree in Civil Eng. in 1997, M.Sc. degree in 1999 in Structural Engineering from Al-Mustansiriya University, and Ph.D. degree in structural Engineering from Baghdad University, in 2005. Started his academic teaching in 2009 when he joined the work at Koya University, Faculty of Engineering. Dr. Faris participated in many conferences and published several researches in many journals.

Bayan S. Al Numan, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, International Tishk University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Professor of structural engineering at the civil engineering department, faculty of engineering, International Tishk University, Erbil, Iraq. He received his PhD in structural engineering from civil engineering department, college of engineering, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq in 1996. Co-author of a textbook "Corrosion Chemistry" 2011, Scrivener Publishing LLC, USA. Author of numerous research papers on analysis of concrete and steel structures, deformations of concrete structures, long-term deformations, structural response of high strength concrete members, reactive powder concrete, natural fibers use in concrete, and sustainable construction.

Published

2021-10-01

How to Cite

Muhammad, M. A., Mohammed, B. K., Ahmed, F. R. and Al Numan, B. S. (2021) “Critical Evaluation for Grading and Fineness Modulus of Concrete Sands used in Sulaymaniyah City-Iraq”, Journal of Engineering, 27(10), pp. 34–49. doi: 10.31026/j.eng.2021.10.03.