Critical Evaluation for Grading and Fineness Modulus of Concrete Sands used in Sulaymaniyah City-Iraq
Keywords:Fine Aggregate Gradation, Sieve Analysis, Fineness Modulus, Clay Content, Standard Specification Limits
Fine aggregates used for concrete works in Sulaymaniyah city frequently fail to meet the standard requirements for gradation and fineness modulus in cement concrete. This paper aims to critically evaluate gradation, fineness modulus, and clay contents of various natural sands produced and used for concrete work in the region. Sixteen field sand samples were collected from various sites in Darbandikhan (5 samples), Qalat Dizah (5 samples), Koysinjaq (5 samples), and Piramagroon (1 sample) confirming to ASTM D75. The field samples were parted into test specimens based on ASTM C702. Then, sieve analysis was carried out on the oven-dry test specimens in compliance with ASTM C136. The test results of fine aggregates were compared with American, British, and Iraqi specification standards using ASTM C33, BS 882, and IQS No. 45. It was revealed that only three sands satisfy the ASTM gradation limits while others do not comply and are on the coarser side. Also, eight samples meet the requirements recommended by BS 882, whereas five samples meet limits by IQS No. 45. It was found that only three sands have the fineness modulus within the ranges recommended by ACI 211.1 and ACI 211.4, while the others have high values. Furthermore, it was found that all sands include an allowable amount of finer particles passing sieve size 0.075 mm. In order to improve particle size distributions, it is recommended to use the blending method to obtain a suitable fine aggregate from two or more failed sands.
Article received: 16/5/2021
Article accepted: 27/ 6/ 2021