Journal of Engineering 2023-02-01T06:58:28+03:00 Prof. Dr. Karima E. Amori Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal publishes 12 volumes annually; each volume consists of 10 - 12 scientific papers in all engineering specialties.</p> Study the Effect of Adding Aluminum Nanoparticles to a Smart Alloy (Cu-Al-Ni) on Hardness and Porosity 2022-08-20T22:51:36+03:00 Myasar Abdulkareem Mohammed Jaffar Ahmed Abdulrasool Ahmed Alkhafaji <p>This work deals with the effect of adding aluminum nanoparticles on the mechanical properties, micro-hardness and porosity of memory-shape alloys (Cu-Al-Ni). These alloys have wide applications in various industrial fields such as (high damping compounds and self-lubricating applications). The samples are manufactured using the powder metallurgy method, which involved pressing in only one direction and sintered in a furnace surrounded by an inert gas. Four percentages (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%) of aluminum nanoparticles were fabricated, which depended on the weight of aluminum powder (13%) in the sample under study. To find out which phase is responsible for the reliability of the formation of this type of alloy and its porosity, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tests are used. The Vickers micro-hardness and porosity properties of these alloys were studied using a Vickers micro-hardness and porosity tester according to ASTM b328-1996. The results showed that increasing the concentration of aluminum nanoparticles in the alloy led to an increase in hardness with a decrease in the porosity, and the sample (15%) gave the best hardness (190.8 HV). The sample (0%) gave the highest porosity (19.573) %.</p> 2023-02-01T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Effect of the Proposed Outlets on the Hydrodynamic Behavior and Water Quality of the South-West Part of the Al Hammar Marsh 2022-07-27T00:46:07+03:00 Kasim Jaafar Thamer Mohammed <p>The current study aims to find a new plan to manage the water quality of the western part of the Hammar Marsh to reduce the salts that cause problems for the marshes and preserve their environmental life by isolating the southwestern part of the Hammar Marsh by closing the outlet under the railway embankment. The outlet is discharging saline water to the east-western part of Al Hammar Marsh. After isolating the southwestern part of the marsh, a new outlet is proposed. The impact of the flow hydrodynamics on improving the water quality was simulated using the SMS model. The hydrodynamics and water quality simulation models for the marsh are : a hydrodynamic model and average depth (SMS RMA2) and a two-dimensional water quality model (SMS RM4). The Civil3D was used to determine the area elevation curve for the marsh, while the shape file for the study area was prepared using the Arc-GIS model. The first model is used to simulate the flow conditions in the marsh (water depth and velocity vectors), while the second model is used to simulate the salinity of the <br />water (Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)). For calibration and verification the models, water samples were taken from ten selected locations within the marsh. The measurements were conducted on 1st January and on 2nd February 2022. The simulation results were validated with the field measurement, and the discrepancy between the simulated and measured water depth was found to be 11%. Many scenarios are based on the proposed recommended outlet that considerably reduces TDS concentration in the Al Hammar marsh. Three scenarios were run on the proposed outlet to maintain a submerged area of 88 km<sup>2</sup>, and to compare the three scenarios, ten points were selected in different locations, where the average TDS ratio for the first scenario was 7528 mg/l, the second scenario was 6982 mg/l and for the third scenario was 8069 mg/l. Results showed that the proposed outlet would improve the hydrodynamics of the flow and reduce the TDS concentration by 10% in addition to controlling the contamination of east western part of the marsh </p> 2023-02-01T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Procurement Management of Power Plants Construction Projects in Iraq 2022-08-13T17:54:41+03:00 Hamza Noori Sawsan Rasheed <p>The government of Iraq states that despite the massive amounts invested in the power generating sector, the country has been plagued by power outages for more than three decades; One of the most common sources of the problem and significant impact on the waste of public funds in contractual processes. The Ministry of Planning issued the sectorial <br />specialized standard bidding documents (SSBD) of Design, Supply, and Installation of the Electromechanical Works (DSIoEW), which is primarily designed to support the Ministry of Electricity (MoE) by developing economic projects to improve the contractual process that led to raisings Iraqi electricity generation field. The research evaluates the impact of <br />applying the SSBD-DSIoEW for governmental power generation plants and investigates the challenges and obstacles of SSBD-DSIoEW applications in Iraq by conducting preliminary interviews with procurement experts and distributing 120 questionnaires to MoE's contractual staff. The results show a lack of experience in applying the evaluation and qualification criteria under SSBD-DSIoEW, and inadequate bid evaluations, resulting in an ineffective procurement system. In the study's conclusion and based on the results, the authors developed a unified bids evaluation model. They structured it in a computerized application program to support bids' evaluation committees</p> 2023-02-01T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Evaluation of Seepage Force and Overall Stability Factor Along Proposed Baghdad Metro Tunnel Across Tigris River 2022-07-21T17:32:52+03:00 Aadil Albadri Haitham A. Hussain <p><strong>B</strong>aghdad Metro is a vital project to fulfill the rapidly increased traffic volume requirements. The proposed metro will connect both sides of Baghdad City, passing under the Tigris River. This study is employed finite elements software (PLAXIS 3D) to evaluate the seepage force developed around the sub-river segment during different construction stages and for other water levels of Tigris. The study found that when the water level changes from maximum to minimum, the developed seepage force decreases by (8 to 13%) and (22 to 27%) respectively. The seepage forces were found to be maximum during the excavation stage. The concrete lining process led to a noticeable reduction in seepage forces at all locations. The study also implemented the strength reduction theory to assess the overall stability of the tunnel. The study shows that the overall stability factor was minimum during the concrete lining process. As the water level decreased, the overall stability factor increased by (5% - 8%). </p> 2023-02-01T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Introduction and Investigation into Oil Well Logging Operations (Review) 2022-09-11T21:08:19+03:00 Amal Habeeb <p>ole in all sta</p> <p><strong>O</strong>il well logging, also known as wireline logging, is a method of collecting data from the well environment to determine subterranean physical properties and reservoir parameters. Measurements are collected against depth along the well's length, and many types of wire cabling tools depend on the physical property of interest. Well probes generally has a dynamic respon to changes in rock layers and fluid composition. These probes or well logs are legal documents that record the history of a well during the drilling stages until its completion. Well probes record the physical properties of the well, which must then be interpreted in petrographic terms to obtain the characteristics of the rocks and fluids associated with the well. Many bases on which well probes are depend on obtaining information, and preventing the rocks from responding to stimuli sent by special devices, whether those stimuli are electrical, radioactive, or acoustic. In addition, there are electrically controlled mechanical bases used to measure the diameter of the well, its flow, pressure, perforation, and taking samples. Wireline refers to the technique of using the cable to deliver special equipment to the bottom of the well to repair, evaluation, or equipment recovery. A simple wireline consists of a shiny metal wire (called a slickline) that is very durable for tensile and wear operations. It is of (0.108" or 0.125") diameter. The equipment is installed at the end of the wire. Still, sometimes a braided cable is used from many small steel wires (Braided line), which makes it stronger and heavier than the first type. The information obtained from the logs is considered to assess geological areas based on porosity, permeability, hydrocarbon fluids, and shale ratio. Well logging uses logs that are much cheaper than core operations and also cheaper than the information obtained from drilling mud. This review aims to pinpoint on the most important logging processes used in oil wells, as well logs have an effective role in all stages of the oil industry.</p> 2023-02-01T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 A Comparison of Dispute Resolution Provisions between the Joint Contract Tribunal and the Iraqi Standard Bidding Document 2022-08-24T17:41:34+03:00 Wurood Zain-alabdeen Sawsan ‎M. Rasheed <p><strong>D</strong>ue to a party's violation of his obligations or responsibilities indicated in the contract, many engineering projects confront extensive contractual disputes, which in turn need arbitration or other forms of dispute resolution, which negatively impact the project's outcome. Each contract has its terms for dispute resolution. Therefore, this paper aims to study the provisions for dispute resolution according to Iraqi (SBDW) and the JCT (SBC/Q2016) and also to show the extent of the difference between the two contracts in the application of these provisions. The methodology includes a detailed study of the dispute settlement provisions for both contracts with a comparative analysis to identify the differences in the application of these provisions between the two contracts. The research results revealed several differences, the most important of which is that the engineer has a dual role in Iraqi (SBDW). On the one hand, he is appointed by the employer to carry out specific duties under the contract. On the other hand, the engineer also has powers related to the settlement of claims and this first level of conflict avoidance between the two parties, Unlike the SBC/Q2016 contract, which appoints a neutral third party to mediate the problem. In addition, resolving disputes between the two parties, according to the ‎Iraqi (SBDW), needs a long time compared with JCT-SBC/Q2016.‎</p> 2023-02-01T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Checking the Accuracy of Selected Formulae for both Clear Water and Live Bed Bridge Scour 2022-08-18T18:27:41+03:00 Huda Rasool Thamer A. Mohammed <p><strong>D</strong>ue to severe scouring, many bridges failed worldwide. Therefore, the safety of the existing bridge (after contrition) mainly depends on the continuous monitoring of local scour at the substructure. However, the bridge's safety before construction mainly depends on the consideration of local scour estimation at the bridge substructure. Estimating the local scour at the bridge piers is usually done using the available formulae. Almost all the formulae used in estimating local scour at the bridge piers were derived from laboratory data. It is essential to test the performance of proposed local scour formulae using field data. In this study, the performance of selected bridge scours estimation formulae was validated and statistically tested using field data for existing bridges in Canada, Iraq (Kufa, Najaf), Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India. The validated formulae were HEC-18, Forehlich, and Johnson. The validation was conducted by comparing the predicted local scour depths obtained from applying the above selected formulae with the local scour depths obtained from the field data. The comparison between them was presented using a scattergram. However, statistical tests were used to present the accuracy of the local scour predictions. The tests were conducted using three statistical indices, namely, Theil’s coefficient (U), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). Among the tested formulae, the Jonson formula gave satisfactory performance since the values of U, MAE, and RMSE were found to be 0.112, 1.351, and 1.650, respectively.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong> </strong></p> 2023-02-01T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Double-Staged Syndrome Coding Scheme for Improving Information Transmission Security over the Wiretap Channel 2022-08-30T15:08:22+03:00 Sarwat A. Ahmed Asaad Mubdir Jassim Al-Hindawi <p><strong>T</strong>his paper presents a study of a syndrome coding scheme for different binary linear error correcting codes that refer to the code families such as BCH, BKLC, Golay, and Hamming. The study is implemented on Wyner’s wiretap channel model when the main channel is error-free and the eavesdropper channel is a binary symmetric channel with crossover error probability (0 &lt; Pe ≤ 0.5) to show the security performance of error correcting codes while used in the single-staged syndrome coding scheme in terms of equivocation rate. Generally, these codes are not designed for secure information transmission, and they have low equivocation rates when they are used in the syndrome coding scheme. Therefore, to improve the transmission security when using these codes, a modified encoder which consists of a double-staged syndrome coding scheme, is proposed. Two models are implemented in this paper: the first model utilizes one encoding stage of the conventional syndrome coding scheme. In contrast, the second model utilizes two encoding stages of the syndrome coding scheme to improve the results obtained from the first model. The C++ programming language, in conjunction with the NTL library, is used for obtaining simulation results for the implemented models. The equivocation rate results from the second model were compared to both the results of the first model and of the unsecured transmission (transmission of data without encryption). The comparison revealed that the security performance of the second model is better than the first model and the insecure system, as the equivocation for all the simulated codes over the proposed model reaches at least %97 at the P<sub>e</sub> = 0.1.</p> <p> </p> 2023-02-01T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Vertical Stress Prediction for Zubair Oil Field/ Case Study 2022-08-17T22:37:38+03:00 Ali K. Faraj Hassan A. Abdul Hussein <p><strong>P</strong>redicting vertical stress was indeed useful for controlling geomechanical issues since it allowed for the computation of pore pressure for the formation and the classification of fault regimes. This study provides an in-depth observation of vertical stress prediction utilizing numerous approaches using the Techlog 2015 software. Gardner's method results in incorrect vertical stress values with a problem that this method doesn't start from the surface and instead relies only on sound log data. Whereas the Amoco, Wendt non-acoustic, Traugott, average technique simply needed density log as input and used a straight line as the observed density, this was incorrect for vertical computing stress. The results of these methods show that extrapolated density measurement used an average for the real density. The gradient of an extrapolated method is much better in shallow depth into the vertical stress calculations. The Miller density method had an excellent fit with the real density in deep depth. It has been crucial to calculate vertical stress for the past 40 years because calculating pore pressure and geomechanical building models have employed vertical stress as input. The strongest predictor of vertical stress may have been bulk density. According to these results, the miller and extrapolated techniques may be the best two methods for determining vertical stress. Still, the gradient of an extrapolated method is much more excellent in shallow depth than the miller method. Extrapolated density approach may produce satisfactory results for vertical stress, while miller values are lower than those obtained by extrapolating. This may be due to the poor gradient of this method at shallow depths. Gardner's approach incorrectly displays minimum values of about 4000 psi at great depths. While other methods provide numbers that are similar because these methods use constant bulk density values that start at the surface and continue to the desired depth, this is incorrect.</p> 2023-02-01T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Applying the WaterGEMS Software to Conduct a Comparison of the Darcy-Weisbach and Hazen-Williams Equations for Calculating the Frictional Head Loss in a Selected Pipe Network 2022-08-21T15:42:11+03:00 Abdulrahman Abdulsamad Khalid A. Abdulrazzaq <p>Darcy-Weisbach (D-W) is a typical resistance equation in pressured flow; however, some academics and engineers prefer Hazen-Williams (H-W) for assessing water distribution networks. The main difference is that the (D-W) friction factor changes with the Reynolds number, while the (H-W) coefficient is a constant value for a certain material. This study uses WaterGEMS CONNECT Edition update 1 to find an empirical relation between the (H-W) and (H-W) equations for two 400 mm and 500 mm pipe systems. The hydraulic model was done, and two scenarios were applied by changing the (H-W) coefficient to show the difference in results of head loss. The results showed a strong relationship between both equations with correlation coefficients of 0.999, 0.998, and 0.993 for 500 mm pipes and 0.998, 0.999, and 0.996 for 400 mm pipes for the applied scenarios. The results also showed that the head loss when using the (H-W) equation for old pipe is more than the (D-W) equation.</p> 2023-02-01T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 An Empirical Investigation on Snort NIDS versus Supervised Machine Learning Classifiers 2022-09-08T01:20:24+03:00 Sarah Abdulrezzak Firas Sabir <p><strong>W</strong>ith the vast usage of network services, Security became an important issue for all network types. Various techniques emerged to grant network security; among them is Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS). Many extant NIDSs actively work against various intrusions, but there are still a number of performance issues including high false alarm rates, and numerous undetected attacks. To keep up with these attacks, some of the academic researchers turned towards machine learning (ML) techniques to create software that automatically predict intrusive and abnormal traffic, another approach is to utilize ML algorithms in enhancing Traditional NIDSs which is a more feasible solution since they are widely spread. To upgrade the detection rates of current NIDSs, thorough analyses are essential to identify where ML predictors outperform them. The first step is to provide assessment of most used NIDS worldwide, Snort, and comparing its performance with ML classifiers. This paper provides an empirical study to evaluate performance of Snort and four supervised ML classifiers, KNN, Decision Tree, Bayesian net and Naïve Bays against network attacks, probing, Brute force and DoS. By measuring Snort metric, True Alarm Rate, F-measure, Precision and Accuracy and compares them with the same metrics conducted from applying ML algorithms using Weka tool. ML classifiers show an elevated performance with over 99% correctly classified instances for most algorithms, While Snort intrusion detection system shows a degraded classification of about 25% correctly classified instances, hence identifying Snort weaknesses towards certain attack types and giving leads on how to overcome those weaknesses. </p> <p>es.</p> 2023-02-01T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Comparison of Groundwater Quality and Quantity between Al-Rahbah and Al-Haydariyah Regions 2022-09-26T21:21:39+03:00 Hanadi Zwain Basim Sh. Abed <p><strong>T</strong>his study focused on two areas in AL-Najaf city, AL-Ruhbah and Al-Haydariyah regions because of the importance and widespread use of groundwater in these areas. The two areas were compared quantitatively and qualitatively. For the quantitative approach, the GMS software was used in conjunction with the GIS software to simulate the groundwater flow behavior. The solid model for both areas was created, the geological formation was determined, and the hydraulic properties were identified using GMS software. To test the quantity of groundwater in both areas, the wells have been redistributed to a distance of 2000 m between them, and a period of 1000 days was chosen. When a discharge of 10 l/s and operation times of 4, 8, and 12 h/d were chosen for the AL-Ruhbah area, the maximum drawdown for all cases was equal to 18.04 m, whereas for Al-Haydariyah, when 5 l/s was chosen, the maximum drawdown was 0.81, 2.56, and 8.13 m, respectively. Field measurement and experimental laboratory tests were conducted to identify the type of water quality in the study areas. TDS, WQI, and SAR classification were employed to determine the type of groundwater. In both areas, groundwater was slightly to moderately saline. A piper diagram was also employed for the two regions to identify the water quality and it revealed that groundwater in the two studies cannot be used for drinking and can only be used for irrigation of plants that can withstand salty water.</p> 2023-02-01T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023