Journal of Engineering <p>The Journal publishes 12 volumes annually; each volume consists of 10 - 12 scientific papers in all engineering specialties.</p> en-US <div style="left: 196.033px; top: 432.093px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.913569);"> </div> <div style="left: 773.5666666666666px; top: 432.09273333333334px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif;"> </div> (Prof. Dr. Basma A. Abdulmajeed) (Asst. Prof. Dr. Ammar A. Farhan) Sat, 01 Oct 2022 08:03:01 +0300 OJS 60 Evaluation of the Physical and Chemical Treatment of Wastewater for the Dairy Industry <p>Dairy wastewater generally contains fats, lactose, whey proteins, and nutrients. Casein precipitation causes the effluent to decompose into a dark, strong-smelling sludge. Fluid waste contains soluble organic matter, suspended solids, and gaseous organic matter, which cause undesirable taste and smell, grant tone and turbidity, and advance eutrophication, which plays an essential role in increasing biological oxygen demand (BOD) in water. It also contains detergents and disinfecting agents from the rinses and washing processes, which increase the need for chemical oxygen (COD). One of the characteristics of dairy effluents is their relatively high temperature, high organic contents, and wide pH range, so the discharge of wastewater into water bodies without treatment leads to deterioration of water quality and ecological imbalance, and therefore treatment is required. To remove or reduce environmental damage. Dairy wastewater treatment includes mechanical, physical, chemical, and biological methods.</p> <p>Organic treatment techniques are reasonable for treating wastewater from the dairy business because of their high biodegradability. Notwithstanding, the long-chain unsaturated fats framed during lipid hydrolysis show an inhibitory impact during anaerobic treatment. Chain block reactors (SBR) and top stream anaerobic slop cover of sludge (UASB) frameworks are the most encouraging advancements for the organic treatment of dairy wastewater. Many papers have applied high-impact exercise and technical methods to the dairy business's anaerobic wastewater treatment of dairy wastewater. However, the two techniques actually have a few disadvantages. The most vital objective of these studies is to track down savvy and naturally manageable ways to deal with and empower the reuse and management of wastewater and waste. Consequently, elective treatments to organic treatment are physical and substance techniques, for example, coagulation, retention, layer cycles, and electrolysis. This section gives a primary survey zeroing in on physical and compound treatment strategies for dairy wastewater treatment. It is under study and checked for its viability.</p> Ahmed Imad Flayyih, Sura Kareem Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Production Load–bearing Concrete Masonry Units by Using Recycled Waste Crushed Clay Bricks; A Review <p>There are serious environmental problems in all countries of the world, due to the waste material such as crushed clay bricks (CCB) and in huge quantities resulting from the demolition of buildings. In order to reduce the effects of this problem as well as to preserve natural resources, it is possible to work on recycling (CCB) and to use it in the manufacture of environmentally friendly loaded building units by replacing percentages in coarse aggregate by volume. It can be used as a powder and replacing of percentages in cement by weight and study the effect on the physical and mechanical properties of the concrete and the masonry unit. Evaluation of its performance through workability, dry density, compressive strength, thermal conductivity, and absorption test, and the experimental results obtained confirmed the possibility of using the recycling of clay bricks waste as aggregates instead of natural aggregates and reducing the weight, as well as recycling clay bricks waste and using it as a powder. It contains suitable pozzolanic that can be used as a supplementary cement material that reduces the cement content in concrete used to produce load-bearing units.</p> Tahseen Fadil Abbas, Zena K Abbas Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Evaluation of ANFIS and Regression Techniques in Estimating Soil Compression Index for Cohesive soils <p><strong>G</strong>enerally, direct measurement of soil compression index (Cc) is expensive and time-consuming. To save time and effort, indirect methods to obtain Cc may be an inexpensive option. Usually, the indirect methods are based on a correlation between some easier measuring descriptive variables such as liquid limit, soil density, and natural water content. This study used the ANFIS and regression methods to obtain Cc indirectly. To achieve the aim of this investigation, 177 undisturbed samples were collected from the cohesive soil in Sulaymaniyah Governorate in Iraq. Results of this study indicated that ANFIS models over-performed the Regression method in estimating Cc with R<sup>2 </sup>of 0.66 and 0.48 for both ANFIS and Regression models, respectively. This work is an effort to practice the advantages of machine learning techniques to build a robust and cost-effective model for Cc estimation by designers, decision makers, and stakeholders.</p> Yaseen Ahmed Hamaamin, Kamal Ahmad Rashed, Younis Mustafa Ali, Tavga Aram Abdalla Salih Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Some properties of Reactive Powder Concrete Contain Recycled Glass Powder <p>Every year, millions of tons of waste glass are created across the globe. It is disposed of in landfills, which is unsustainable since it does not disintegrate into the environment. This study aims to produce reactive powder concrete by using recycled glass powder and determine the influence on the mechanical properties. This study investigated the effect of partial replacement of cement with recycled glass powder at two percentages (0, 20) % by weight of cement on some mechanical properties (Fresh density, Splitting tensile strength, Impact Strength, and voids%) of reactive powder concrete containing 1 % micro steel (MSRPC). Furthermore, using steam curing for (5 hours) at 90 degrees celsius after hardening the sample directly, RPC was produced using local cement, silica fume, and a super plasticizer, with a w/c (0.2). It was found the Fresh density increased by about (7.27%), splitting tensile strength increased by about (23.5%) at age 28day, energy that causes 1-st crack increased by about (77.7%), energy that causes ultimate failure increased by about (54.9%) at age 60 days, and a reduction in the voids % by about (12.5)% at age 28 day compared with the reference mixture.</p> Zainab Ali Hussain , Nada Mahdi Fawzi Aljalawi Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Numerical Study of Thermal Conductivity Effect on The Performance of Thermal Energy Storage <p class="paragraph"><strong>I</strong>n this study, the effect of the thermal conductivity of phase change material (PCM) on the performance of thermal energy storage has been analyzed numerically. A horizontal concentric shell-and-tube latent heat thermal energy storage system (LHTESS) has been performed during the solidification process. Two types of paraffin wax with different melting temperatures and thermal conductivity were used as a PCM on the shell side, case1=0.265W/m.K and case2=0.311 W/m.K. Water has been used as heat transfer fluid (HTF) flow through in tube side. Ansys fluent has been used to analyze the model by taking into account phase change by the enthalpy method used to deal with phase transition. The numerical simulation assumptions were three-dimensional, transient, and laminar flow was used. The result for the PCMs of performance, temperature distribution, and liquid fraction during the discharge process were compared to each other. Furthermore, the Nusselt number was analyzed. The result showed that the increase in thermal conductivity of PCM reduces the time of the solidification process by 20%. The performance of LHTESS for case 2 is 63.2%, whereas for case1 is 54.6%.</p> Hassan Hadi Sadiq, Munther Abdullah Mussa Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Parameters Affecting the Strength and Behavior of RC Dapped-End Beams: A Numerical Study <p><strong>T</strong>he finite element method has been used in this paper to investigate the behavior of precast reinforced concrete dapped-ends beams (DEBs) numerically. A parametric investigation was performed on an experimental specimen tested by a previous researcher to show the effect of numerous parameters on the strength and behavior of RC dapped-end beams. Reinforcement details and steel arrangement, the influence of concrete compressive strength, the effect of inclined load, and the effect of support settlement on the strength of dapped-ends beams are examples of such parameters. The results revealed that the dapped-end reinforcement arrangement greatly affects the behavior of dapped end beam. The failure load decreases by 25% when insufficient development length for main dapped-end reinforcement is provided, and nib shear reinforcement has less effect than nib main reinforcement. The results also showed that the shear strength of dapped-end beams increased as concrete strength increased. When the compressive strength of concrete increased by 100% led to an enhancement of strength capacity by about 34%. The strength of the dapped-ends beams is significantly affected by the settlement of the supports.</p> Arten N. Atalla, Khalaf I. Mohammad Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0300