Evaluation of Elaj Irrigation Project in Babil Governorate

Main Article Content

Montader M. AL Mosawi
Hayder A. Al Thamiry


Climate change causes water shortage (water scarcity) in addition to the dams built by neighboring countries, which caused a lack of Iraq's water share. Therefore, evaluating the irrigation system requires considering its suitability, adequacy, and efficiency. Irrigation is considered adequate when it maintains water availability within the root zone, and if the amount to be added is determined, irrigation efficiency becomes possible by avoiding water loss. Babil Governorate is considered one of the agricultural governorates in the country that depends on its irrigation from Shatt Al-Hilla. The study area is the Elaj project. Three fields were selected for the project (B1, B2, and B3). These fields are located at the project's beginning, middle and end. The evaluation was based on the field measurements of water contents before and after watering during the growing season. Also, the root zone of each plant during the growing season is measured to give more accurate calculations. Accordingly, application efficiency, conveyance efficiency, distribution efficiency, storage efficiency, water productivity efficiency, and water use efficiency were calculated in the project. The application efficiency for the selected fields ranged between (33 to 39) % in B1, (32 to 38) % in B2, and (32 to 39) % in B3. The application efficiency in all fields increased by about 6% during the third watering period between (22/3/2021 to 4/4/2021) due to the low water level in Shatt Al-Hilla during maintenance work that lasted more than a month. The efficiency of the scheme [ηs%] in the project is 32.3%. This value is low and reflects the reality of irrigation in the Babil. Therefore, improvements must be made to the irrigation system.


Article Details

How to Cite
“Evaluation of Elaj Irrigation Project in Babil Governorate” (2022) Journal of Engineering, 28(8), pp. 21–33. doi:10.31026/j.eng.2022.08.02.

How to Cite

“Evaluation of Elaj Irrigation Project in Babil Governorate” (2022) Journal of Engineering, 28(8), pp. 21–33. doi:10.31026/j.eng.2022.08.02.

Publication Dates


Al-Ansari, N., 2013, Management of Water Resources in Iraq: Perspectives and Prognoses, Engineering, Vol.5, No.8, pp. 667-684.

Haymale, H. K , Njau, K. N and Kahimba, F . C., 2020. Estimating Conveyance Efficiency and Maize Productivity of Traditional Irrigation Systems in Usa River Catchment, Tanzania, International Journal of Agronomy, Volume 2020, Article ID 7065238, 11 pages.

Ismail, S. M., and Ozawa, K., 2007. Improvement of Crop Yield, Soil Moisture Distribution and Water Use Efficiency in Sandy Soils by Clay Application, Applied Clay Science, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 81-89.

Israelsen, O. W., W. D. Criddle, D. K. Fuhriman and V. E. Hansen. 1944. Water- application Efficiencies in Irrigation B.

Irmak, S., L. O. Odhiambo, W. L. Kranz and D. E. Eisenhauer, 2011. Irrigation efficiency and uniformity, and crop water use efficiency, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Lincoln, NE.

Jabeen, M., Rashid Ahmed, S. and Ahmed, M., 2021. Enhancing water use efficiency and grain yield of wheat by optimizing irrigation supply in arid and semi-arid regions of Pakistan, Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 28(1):1-8.

Kibret, E.A., Abera, A., Ayele, W.T., and Alemie, N.A., 2021. Performance Evaluation of Surface Irrigation System in the Case of Dirma Small-Scale Irrigation Scheme at Kalu Woreda, Northern Ethiopia, Water Conservation Science and Engineering: Volume 6, pp. 263–274.

Sajid, I. , Tischbein,B., Borgemeister, C., and Flörke, M., 2022. Performance Evaluation and Water Availability of Canal Irrigation Scheme in Punjab Pakistan: Water 2022, 14, 405.

Shirazi., S. M., N. H. Zardari, Z. Yusop, Z. Ismail and F. Othman, 2014. Performance of wheat crop under different irrigation regimes and nitrogen levels - A field experiment, J. Environ. Prot. Ecology, 15 (3): 860-869.

Smucker, A. J. M., and Basso, B., 2014. Global Potential for a New Subsurface Water Retention Technology - Converting Marginal Soil into Sustainable Plant Production, the soil underfoot: infinite possibilities for a finite resource, Churchman G. J., Landa E. R. (eds), Chapter 24, CRC Press, pp. 315-324.

Yusuf, Salim, Steven Hawken, Stephanie Ôunpuu, Tony Dans, Alvaro Avezum, Fernando Lanas, Matthew McQueen, Andrzej Budaj, Prem Pais, and John Varigos, 2004. “Effect of Potentially Modifiable Risk Factors Associated with Myocardial Infarction in 52 Countries (the INTERHEART Study): Case-Control Study.” The Lancet 364(9438):937–52.