Main Article Content

Mikdam M. Saleh
Ali S. Baqir


A new design concept for a percolator is developed which combine the simultaneous production of ammonia vapor plus the pumping of weak aqua ammonia liquid. The steady state desig was based on a balance between the hydrostatic driving head and the total single and two-phase pressure losses in the percolator system. To accomplish this, the results from modeling of the driving pressure and pressure losses, using the separated flow and drift flux methods were compared with the experimental measurements. The Chisholm's model was the best in predicting the measured flow rate versus water level for first stage with a maximum standard deviation of ± 10.1% and was adopted for the theoretical calculations. Parametric design studies that include the cooling power and the strong solution level, inner tube diameter and height for each stage of the percolator were carried out to maximize suitable cost function. The results of the optimization gave a two stage percolator of length 280 mm, inner diameter 5.5 mm for first stage and length 520 mm, inner diameter 5.5 mm for second stage.

Article Details

How to Cite
“DESIGN OF A PERCOLATOR FOR AQUA-AMMONIA LIQUID” (2005) Journal of Engineering, 11(01), pp. 33–49. doi:10.31026/j.eng.2005.01.05.

How to Cite

“DESIGN OF A PERCOLATOR FOR AQUA-AMMONIA LIQUID” (2005) Journal of Engineering, 11(01), pp. 33–49. doi:10.31026/j.eng.2005.01.05.

Publication Dates


Baqir, A. S., (2002), Design of A Percolator for Aqua-Anmonia Liqaid, M. Sc. Thesis, University of Baghdad,

Chisholm, D., (1983), Two-Phase Flow in Pipelines and Heat Exchangers, George Goodwin, New York

Chisholm, D. (1972), Pressure Gradients Due To Friction During the Flow of Evaporating Two phase Mixtures in smooth Tubes and channels, Int J. Hen Mass Transfer. Vol. 16, pp.347-358,

Clark, N.N. and Dabolt, R.J.. A (1986), general design equation for air lif pumps operating in slug flow. AIChf Journal, Vol. 32, No 1. pp. 56-64,

Collier, J. G., and Thome, J. R., (1996), Convective Boiling and Condensation. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York,

de Cachard, F. and Delhaye, J.M., (1996), A slug-chum model for small-diameter airlift pumps, Int. J. Multiphase Flow, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 627-649,.

Delano, A.D, (1998). Design Analysis of the Einstein Refrigeration Cycle, PhD Dissertation. Georgia Institute of Technology

El-Wakil, M.M., (1979), Nuclear Power Engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York, N.Y..

Kouremenos, D.A and Stuicos, J., (1985), Performance of a small air-lift purmp, Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, Yol. 6, pp. 217-222..

Reinemann. D.J.. Parlange, 1Y and Timmons, M.B., (1000), Theory of smell-dianeter airlif pumps, Int 1. Multiphase Flow, Vol. 16, pp. 113-122,.

Salch, M. M, (2000), Basic Design Repont for A Domestic Absorption Refrigeration Cyele, Ibn Unis Center Eng. Design.

Stepning. A, and Martin, C., (1968, An anmlytical and expurimental study of air-lifi pump perfermance, ASME Joumal of Engincering for Power, pp. 106-110

White, S. J, (2001), 1ubble Pump Design and Performanee, M. Se. Thesis, Georgia insitue of Technology