Controlling the Salt Wedge Intrusion in Shatt Al-Arab River by a Barrage

Main Article Content

Alaa Abdula Ali
Hayder A Al Thamiry


Shatt Al-Arab River in Al Basrah, Iraq, has recently recorded massive levels of TDS values (Total Dissolved Solids) in the water as a result of reduced fresh water discharge from sources, causing the river to become salinized due to salt wedge intrusion. Therefore, a block dam in the south reach is required to salt intrusion prevention. The main objective of this research is to simulate the hydraulic impact of a suggested barrage in Ras Al Besha on the Shatt Al-Arab River. The HEC-RAS (5.0.7) model was used to develop a one-dimensional unsteady model to gaining an understanding of the proposed barrage's influence on river behaviour. The daily discharges of the Tigris River provided as the upstream boundary conditions, while the hourly water levels of the Shatt Al-Arab River provided as the downstream boundary conditions. The model was initially run on the basis of daily discharges in Aug 2018 and March 2020 for the model's calibration and verification. Then, a model was run with a proposed barrage, Four cases of discharge were chosen which were the low and moderate discharge that equal to (20-50-100 and 250) m3/s with adopted spring tide cycle. The operation scenarios were examined under the influence of three cases of barrage gates (fully opened, 50% open and programmed opening). The results indicate that the investigated discharges will cause a significant problems in navigation depths, especially in the case of the programming of gates opening where the stages drop range between 2.01-3.3m comparing with the normal case. Furthermore, the velocity indicators show that the significant reduction in velocity upstream the barrage led to more sedimentation in the river reach.

Article Details

How to Cite
“Controlling the Salt Wedge Intrusion in Shatt Al-Arab River by a Barrage” (2021) Journal of Engineering, 27(12), pp. 69–86. doi:10.31026/j.eng.2021.12.06.

How to Cite

“Controlling the Salt Wedge Intrusion in Shatt Al-Arab River by a Barrage” (2021) Journal of Engineering, 27(12), pp. 69–86. doi:10.31026/j.eng.2021.12.06.

Publication Dates


• Al-Mahmoud, H. K., Al-Sayaab, H. A., B Al-Miahi, D. S., M, A. B., & Mutasher, W. R., 2011. One dimensional model to study hydrodynamics properties for north part of Shatt Al Arab River (south Iraq). Basrah Journal of Scienec (C), 28(1), 1–14.

• Al-fartusi, A. J., 2013. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Computational and Applied Sciences (IJETCAS). International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Computational and Applied Sciences (IJETCAS), 513–519.

• Abbas, A. A. K., 2017. Application of a Hydrodynamic HEC-RAS Model for Shatt Al-Arab River. Muthanna Journal of Engineering and Technology (MJET). Vol 2, 11–22.

• Abdullah, A. D., Gisen, J. I. A., Van Der Zaag, P., Savenije, H. H. G., Karim, U. F. A., Masih, I., & Popescu, I., 2016. Predicting the salt water intrusion in the Shatt al-Arab estuary using an analytical approach. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 20(10), 4031–4042.

• Ahmad, H.F., Alam, A., Bhat, M.S., Ahmad, S., 2016. One Dimensional Steady Flow Analysis Using HECRAS–A case of River Jhelum, Jammu and Kashmir. Eur. Sci. J. 2016, 12, 32.

• Al-Galibi, M. N., 2018. Deterioration of water Characteristics in Shatt Al-Arab River and ways of treatments. M.Sc. Thesis, College of Education for Human Sciences, University of Basrah.

• AL-Zaidy, H. SH. A., and AL-Thamiry H. A. K., 2020. Prediction Capacity of Euphrates River at Assamawa City. Journal of Engineering- University of Baghdad, 26(4).

• Azzubaidi, R. Z., and Abbas, M. S., 2020. Current and Modified Flood Discharge Capacity of a Reach of Tigris River between Kut and Amarah Barrages. Journal of Engineering- University of Baghdad, 26(2).

• Hamdan, A. N., Abbas, A. A., and Najm, A. T., 2019. Flood Hazard Analysis of Proposed Regulator on Shatt Al-Arab River. Hydrology Journal, 2019, 6, 0080; doi:

• Hussian, N.A., Abdullah, S.S., Al-Mahdi, A.A., 2009. Some features of the physical oceanography in Iraqi marine waters. Mesop. J. Mar. Sci., 2009, 24 (1): 13 - 24.

• Hamdan, A. N. A., 2016a. Simulation of Salinity Intrusion from Arabian Gulf to Shatt Al-Arab River. Basrah Journal for Engineering Sciences, vol. 16, no. 1, P 28–32.

• Hamdan, A. N. A., Al-Mahdib, A. A. J. and Mahmood, A. B., 2020. Modeling the Effect of Sea Water Intrusion into Shatt Al-Arab River. Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences, Vol. (28), No. (2): 28, 210–224.

• Hamdan, A. N. A., 2016b. Controlling The Surface Water of Shatt Al Arab River by using Sluice Gates. Journal of Babylon University, 24(1), 85–94.

• HAMDAN, A. N. A., NAJM, A. T., ABBAS, A. A., 2018. Flow Simulation of Shatt Al-Arab River by HEC-RAS 5.0.3. International Journal of Advances in Mechanical and Civil Engineering, vol. 15, no. 1 , pp. 31-36.

• Kumar, N., Lal, D., Sherring, A., Issac, R.K., 2017. Applicability of HEC-RAS & GFMS tool for 1D water surface elevation/flood modeling of the river: a Case Study of River Yamuna at Allahabad (Sangam), India. Model. Earth Syst. Environ. 2017, 3, 1463–1475.

• Lateef, Z. Q., Al-Madhhachi, A. S. T., & Sachit, D. E., 2020. Evaluation of water quality parameters in Shatt Al-Arab, Southern Iraq, using spatial analysis. Hydrology, 7(4), 1–33.

• Mahmood, H. K. H. A., Hassan, W. F., Hammood, O. I., and Muhson, N. K., 2015. Impact of Low Discharge and Drought on the Water Quality of the Shatt Al-Arab and Shatt Al-Basra Rivers (South of Iraq). journal of international academic research for multidisciplinary, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 285–296.

• MED Ingegneria S.r.l; SGI Studio Galli Ingegneria S.p.A; El Concorde LLC., 2013. Shatt Al-Arab Irrigation Project—Main Technical Report; MED517; Center of Studies and Engineering Designs, Ministry of Water Resource: Baghdad, Iraq, January 2013.

• Ministry of Water Resources unpublished data. Discharge, TDS, and Levels Records, Bathymetrical survey; Water Resources Directorate in Basrah: Basrah, Iraq. National Center for Water Resource Management: Baghdad, Iraq. General Survey Authority: Baghdad, Iraq.

• Ministry of Water Resources, 2014, Strategy for Water and Land Resources in Iraq, unpublished data.

• Papaioannou, G., Efstratiadis, A., Vasiliades, L., Loukas, A., Papalexiou, S., Koukouvinos, A., Tsoukalas, I., Kossieris, P., 2018. An Operational Method for Flood Directive Implementation in Ungauged Urban Areas. Hydrology 2018, 5, 24.

• Quiroga, V.M., Kure, S., Udo, K., Mano, A., 2016. Application of 2d Numerical Simulation for the Analysis of the February 2014 Bolivian Amazonia Flood: Application of the New HEC-RAS Version 5. RIBAGUA 2016, 3, 25–33.

• Salim, S., 2014. Tide phenomenon in the Shatt Al Arab. Marine Science Centre, Basrah University. Journal of Arabian Gulf ,Vol. 42 ,No.3-4 ,p :133-155 .

• Tenzin, J., Bhaskar, A.S., 2017. Modeling of the Precipitation Induced Flash Flood in Sarpang, Bhutan Using HEC-RAS. Rasayan J. Chem. 2017, 10, 399–406.

• Te Chow, V., 1959, Open-channel hydraulics, McGraw-Hill, New York.

• US Army Corps of Engineers, 2016. Hec-Ras River Analysis System, User Manual, Corps of Engineers (USACE), Hydrologic Engineering Center, 2016.

• US Army Corps of Engineers, 2016. HEC-RAS, Hydraulic Reference Manual, Hydrologic Engineering Center, Version 5.0.7.

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.