Comparative Study between the Behavior of the Concrete Thrust Block and the Restraint Joint in a Water Distribution System; Review


  • Murtadha Hardan Dawood College of Engineering - University of Baghdad
  • Amer Farouq Izzet College of Engineering - University of Baghdad
  • Basim Hussien Khuadir College of Engineering - University of Baghdad



thrust force, pipe fitting, thrust block, restraint joints, water distribution system.


Thrust blocks and restraint joints are the two most popular methods of counteracting the thrust force that generated at pipe fittings (bends, Tee, wye, reducers, dead ends, etc…). Both systems perform the same function, which is to prevent the joints from separating from the pipes. The aim of the study is to review previous studies and scientific theories related to the study and design of thrust blocks and restraint joints to study the behavior of both systems under thrust force and to study the factors and variables that affect the behavior of these systems. The behavior of both systems must be studied because they cannot be abandoned, as each system has conditions whose use is more feasible, scientific, and economical. The use of thrust blocks is usually more economical. Still, in many cases, its use is not appropriate, as it is required to wait for the result of the compressive strength test of the concrete. It is required to close the pipe trench as soon as possible; thus, this affects the safety of workers. Or there are future excavation works that may harm the stability of the block, and when the pipe diameter is large, we need a large amount of concrete which affects the economic aspect of the work. For this, the alternative system (restraint joint) must be studied. The main result of the research is that each system provides the opposite force against thrust force with a different mechanism from the other depending on the properties of the soil.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Murtadha Hardan Dawood, College of Engineering - University of Baghdad

Iraq - Baghdad

Bachelor in Civil engineering/ Structural engineering - University of technology

Master Student in Structural engineering - University of Baghdad


Ductile Iron Pipe Research Association (DIPRA) , 2016 , Thrust Restraint Design for Ductile Iron Pipe, 7th edition Ductile Iron Pipe Research Association, P.O. Box 190306, Birmingham, AL 35219.

Anwar , A. R. , Uche ,O. A. , Abdulfatah , A.Y. , Adedeji , A. A. , 2012 , Genetic Algorithm Based Design of Bearing Thrust Block for Horizontally Bent Ductile Iron Pipes , Epistemics in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2012;2(1):43-50.

Jeyapalan, J.K., Rajah, S.K., Unified approach to thrust restraint design. Journal of transportation engineering. 2007 Jan;133(1):57-61.

Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission (WSSC), 2008, Thrust Restraint Design for Buried Pipelines, Common Design Guidelines. Part three. Section 27, C-27.1- C-27.26.

Halifax Regional Water Commision, 2010, Design and Construction Specifications: Municipal Water & Wastewater Systems, 2010 Edition.

EPCOR, 2021, Design and Construction Standards.

United States Pipe and Foundry Company (U.S.PIPE), 2006, Restrained Joints for ductile iron pipelines, 2006 Edition, P.o. BoX 10406, BIRMINGHAM AL 35202, 866.DIP.PIPE (866.347.7473).

Rahman, S., Diamond, M.,2006, Containing Thrust Forces in Municipal Pipelines: An Integral Joint Restraint System for PVC Pressure Pipe, Plastic Pipes XII. CDROM. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC.

Patankar, N. A., Singh, P., Joseph, D.D., Glowinski ,R., Pan, T.W. ,2000, A new formulation of the distributed Lagrange multiplier/fictitious domain method for particulate flows, International Journal of Multiphase Flow 1;26(9):1509-24.

Davies, S.J., White, C.M., 1928, An experimental study of the flow of water in pipes of rectangular section, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, Containing Papers of a Mathematical and Physical Character, 1;119(781):92-107.

Bagarello,V., Ferro, V.,Provenzano, G.,Pumo, D., 1995 ,Experimental study on flow-resistance law for small-diameter plastic pipes, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering,;121(5):313-6.

Bansal, R.K., 1983, Fluid mechanic text book, Revised ninth edition, Chapter 6, p.289.

Azoury, P.H., Baasiri, M., Najm, H., 1986, Effect of valve-closure schedule on water hammer, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering; 112(10):890-903.

Kandil, M., Kamal, A.M., El-Sayed, T.A., 2020, Effect of pipe materials on water hammer. International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 1;179:103996.

Wood, D.J., Chao, S.P., 1971, Effect of pipeline junctions on water hammer surges, Transportation Engineering Journal of ASCE, 97(3):441-57.

Thorley, A. R., Atkinson, J.H., 1994, Guide to the Design of Thrust Blocks for Buried Pressure Pipelines, Report 128, Construction Industry Research and Information Association, Westminster, London, pp.16-17.

Water Industry Information & Guidance Note, 1988, Revised Bedding Factors For Vitrified Clay Drains and Sewers, IGN 4-11-02, Issue 1, ISSN 0267-0305.

American Water Work Association ANSI/AWWA C151/A21.51-09, 2009, Ductile-Iron Pipe, Centrifugally Cast.

Alzabeebee, S., Chapman, D.N., Faramarzi, A., 2018, A comparative study of the response of buried pipes under static and moving loads, Transportation Geotechnics, 1;15:39-46.

Marston, A., Anderson, A.O., 1913, the Theory of Loads on Pipes in Ditches and Tests of Cement and Clay Drain Tile, No. 31. Iowa Eng. Exp. Sta. Bul.

Liu, Q.L.,Yang, M.,2001,Study of vertical soil pressure on positive buried Pipeline, Rock Soil, Mech.22(2),214–218.

Matyas,E.L., Davis,J.B.,1983, Prediction of vertical earth loads on rigid pipes, J. Geotech. Eng., ASCE109(2),190–201.

Spangler, M.G.,1941,The Structural Design of Flexible Pipe Culverts, Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, Iowa.

Tian,Y., Liu,H., Jiang, X.,Yu,R.,2014, Analysis of stress and deformation of a positive buried pipe using the improved Spangler model, Soils andFoundations2015;55(3):485–492.

Tian, W.D.,1989, Review of the vertical earth pressure theory of positive buried pipe culverts in recent years at home and abroad, ZheJiang Hydrotech. 1,13–21.

Hussein, O.S., 2021, Comparative study for designing the horizontal thrust blocks in pipelines for water and sewage networks, Water Science & Technology Vol 00 No 0, 1 doi: 10.2166/wst.2021.307.

Boston Water and Sewer Commission, 2012, 980 HARRISON AVE., BOSTON, MA02119 (617) 989-7000.

Abdulkadir, T.S., 2013, Direct Search For Optimal Design Of Thrust Block In Nigeria, Websjournal of Science and Engineering Application, Wesea Issn: 1974-1400-X , Vol 2, No 2, 2013, 88-95.

Ebaa iron connection, 1995, Thrust Restraint Design Equations and Soil Parameters for Ductile Iron and PVC Pipe, P.O.BOX 857.

Calvetti, F., di Prisco, C., Nova, R., 2004, Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Soil–Pipe Interaction, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2004)130:12(1292).

Plumping, Heating, cooling and piping (PHCP), 2018,



How to Cite

Dawood, M., Izzet, A. F. and Khudair, B. H. (2022) “Comparative Study between the Behavior of the Concrete Thrust Block and the Restraint Joint in a Water Distribution System; Review”, Journal of Engineering, 28(5), pp. 1–10. doi: 10.31026/j.eng.2022.05.01.