Assessment of Bearing Capacity and Settlement Characteristics of Organic Soil Reinforced by Dune Sand and Sodium Silicate Columns: A Numerical Study

Authors

  • Ameen M. Jasim university of Baghdad - college of engineering
  • Mahmood D. Ahmed

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.31026/j.eng.2024.02.04

Keywords:

Organic Soil, Sand Dune, Problematic Soils, Bearing Capacity Ratio, Settlement Ratio

Abstract

Organic soil is problematic soils in geotechnical engineering due to its properties, as it is characterized by high compressibility and low bearing capacity. Therefore, several geotechnical techniques tried to stabilize and improve this soil type. In this study, sodium silicate was used to stabilize sand dune columns. The best sodium silicate concentration (9%) was used, and the stabilized sand dune columns were cured for seven days. The results for this soil were extracted using a numerical analysis program (Plaxis 3D, 2020).In the case of studying the effect of (L/D) (where ‘’L” and ‘’D’’ length and diameter of sand dune columns) of a single column of sand dunes stabilized with sodium silicate with a different diameter, the results showed that the best effect was for L/D of (4) with D equal to (0.7m) in the end bearing columns type. In the case of studying a group of columns, the percentage of improvement in soil bearing ratio increased with increasing the number of columns in both floating and end bearing types. When using (8-columns) with a square distribution pattern, the optimum improvement was at the end bearing and at the ratio L/D of (6), where the improvement percentage was (666%) compared to the unimproved soil.

 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

  • Mahmood D. Ahmed

     

     

     

References

Al-busoda, B.S., and Salman, R., 2013. Bearing capacity of shallow footing on compacted filling dune sand over reinforced gypseous soil. Journal of Engineering, 19(5), pp. 532–542. Doi:10.31026/j.eng.2013.05.01.

Albusoda, B.S., and Salem, L.A.K., 2012. Bearing capacity of shallow footings resting on dune sand. Journal of Engineering, 18(03), pp. 298–308. Doi: 10.31026/j.eng.2012.03.02.

Al-Hassnawi, N.S., 2013. Sand columns stabilized with cement/lime mixture embedded in soft clay. M.Sc. Thesis, Building and Construction Engineering Department, University of Technology, Iraq.

Al-Hillo, A.S.Y., 2009. Bearing capacity of foundation subjected to eccentric loads on soils improved with industrial waste and dune sand. M.Sc. thesis. Universiity of Baghdad, Iraq .

Al-Taie, A.J., 2002. Properties and behavior of dune sands as a construction material. M.Sc. Thesis. University of Baghdad, Iraq.

Al-Khadaar, R.M., and Mahmood, D.A., 2023. Review of jet grouting practice around the world. Journal of Engineering, 29(7), pp. 48–70. Doi:10.31026/j.eng.2023.07.04.

ASTM D422, 2002. Standard test method for particle-size analysis of soils. West Conshohocken, PA:

ASTM International.

ASTM D854, 2014. Standard test methods for specific gravity of soil solids. West Conshohocken, PA:

ASTM International.

ASTM D2166, 2016. Standard test method for unconfined compressive strength of cohesive soil.

West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.

ASTM D 2850, 2007. Standard test methods for unconsolidated-undrained triaxial compression test on cohesive soils. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.

ASTM D 2974, 2000. Standard test method for moisture content, ash and organic matter of peat and other organic soils. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.

ASTM D 3080, 2012. Standard test method for direct shear test of soils under consolidated drained conditions. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.

ASTM D4253, 2006. Standard test method for maximum index density and unit weight of soils using a vibratory table. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.

ASTM D4254, 2006. Standard test method for minimum index density and unit weight of soils and calculation of relative density. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.

ASTM D4318, 2000. Standard test methods for liquid limit, plastic limit, and plasticity index of soils. west conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.

Bagnold, R.A. , 2012. The physics of blown sand and desert dunes. Courier Corporation.

Barksdale, R.D., Bachus, R.C. and Barksdale, R.D., 1983. Design and construction of stone columns. US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

Chai, J., Horpibulsuk, S., Shen, S., and Carter, J.P., 2014. Consolidation analysis of clayey deposits under vacuum pressure with horizontal drains. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 42(5), pp. 437-444. Doi:10.1016/j.geotexmem.2014.07.001.

Disfani, M.M., Arulrajah, A., Horpibulsuk, S., Leong, M., and Bo, M.W, 2014. Densification of land reclamation sands by deep vibratory compaction techniques. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 26(8), P. 06014016. Doi:10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0001010.

Dougrameji, J.S. , 1999. Aeolian sediment movements in lower alluvial plain, Iraq. Desertification Control Bulletin, (35), pp. 45–49.

Lutenegger, A.J., and Adams, M.T., 1998. Bearing capacity of footings on compacted sand. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering, (36), pp. 1216-1224.

Mainguet, M., 1984. A classification of dunes based on aeolian dynamics and the sand budget. Deserts and arid lands, pp. 31-58. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. Doi: 10.1007/978-94-009-6080-0_2.

Majeed, A.H., Al-Soud, M.S., and Sadiq, Z.H., 2016. Improvement of shear strength parameters of model organic soils. Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development, 20(05), pp. 213–224.

Mitchell, J. K., and Soga, K., 1993. Fundamentals of soil behavior. John Wiley & Sons. Inc., New York, 422.

Parsons, R. L., and Kneebone, E., 2005. Field performance of fly ash stabilised subgrades. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Ground Improvement, 9(1), pp. 33-38. Doi:10.1680/grim.2005.9.1.33.

Peter, M.G., 2003. Environmentally Safe Binders for Agglomeration. Bulletin 9, PQ Corporation.

PLAXIS, Edition, C., and Manual, T., 2021. CONNECT Edition V21.01 PLAXIS 3D - Tutorial Manual. pp. 1–163. https://communities.bentley.com/cfs-file/__key/communityserver-wikis-components-files/00-00-00-05-58/PLAXIS2DCE_2D00_V21.01_2D00_03_2D00_Material_2D00_Models.pdf

Rashid, A.S.A., Shahrin, M.I., Horpibulsuk, S., Hezmi, M. A., Yunus, N. Z. M., and Borhamdin, S., 2017. Development of sustainable masonry units from flood mud soil: strength and morphology investigations. Construction and Building Materials, 131, 682-689. Doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.11.039.

Sukmak, P., Horpibulsuk, S., and Shen, S.L. , 2013. Strength development in clay–fly ash geopolymer. Construction and Building Materials, 40, pp. 566–574.Doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.11.015.

Terzaghi, K., 1947. Theoretical soil mechanics. John Wily & Sons, NewYork, USA.

Zbar, B.S., Khan, M.A., and Jawad, A.S., 2013. Geotechnical properties of compacted silty clay mixed with different sludge contents. In International conference for geotechnical engineering and transportation, ICGTE 20(31), pp. 3716-3732.Doi:10.30684/etj.31.20A.3.

How to Cite

“Assessment of Bearing Capacity and Settlement Characteristics of Organic Soil Reinforced by Dune Sand and Sodium Silicate Columns: A Numerical Study” (2024) Journal of Engineering, 30(02), pp. 52–67. doi:10.31026/j.eng.2024.02.04.

Publication Dates

Published

2024-02-19

Similar Articles

1-10 of 759

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.