Main Article Content

Yousif J. al-shakarchi
Mohammed Yousif Fattah
Ahmed S. Jawad Al- Shammary


In order to design structures on soft soils, it is necessary to predict the behavior of the soft soil
under imposed structure load. The high excessive settlements of the soft soil can cause many
problems for the structures built on the soil like cracking and breakup of pavements, railway,
highway embankments, etc...
In this work, the finite element method is utilized as a tool for carrying out different
analyses of embankments on soft ground with different conditions. The computer program CRISP
(CRItical State Program) is developed to suit the problem requirements. CRISP uses the finite
element technique and allows predictions to be made of soil deformations using the critical state
Eight-node isoparametric quadrilateral element has been added to the program. The program
was used to analyze fully coupled (Biot) consolidation of two-dimensional plane strain problems.
The finite element predictions of displacements and excess pore water pressures were compared
with field measurements.
It was concluded that the maximum vertical movement occurs below the centerline of the
embankment. The settlement decreases slightly as the toe of the embankment is approached and
decreases rapidly as the distance away from the toe increases. Upward movement of the surface far
from the toe is observed. The maximum horizontal movement occurs near the top boundary. The
rate of horizontal movement at the top of the foundation is greater than at the bottom. This behavior
may be due to the flexibility and free movement condition of the vertical boundary in the top half

Article Details

How to Cite
“FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF EMBANKMENTS ON SOFT CLAYS - CASE STUDIES” (2009) Journal of Engineering, 15(1), pp. 3268–3292. doi:10.31026/j.eng.2009.01.04.

How to Cite

“FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF EMBANKMENTS ON SOFT CLAYS - CASE STUDIES” (2009) Journal of Engineering, 15(1), pp. 3268–3292. doi:10.31026/j.eng.2009.01.04.

Publication Dates


* Al-Shammary, A.S. (2006), “Effect of Lightweight Materials on the Consolidation Characteristics of Embankment on Soft Soils”, M.Sc. Thesis, College of Engineering, Civil Engineering Department, University of Baghdad.

* Atkinson, J.H. and Bransby, P.L. (1978), ”The Mechanics of Soils an Introduction to Critical State Soil Mechanics”, Mc Graw-Hill Book Company, U.K.

* Holtz, R. P. (1972), “Soil Movement below a Test Embankment”, ASCE, Especialty Conference on Performance of Earth and Earth Supported Structure, Purdue, Vol.2, PP.273-289.

* Kallstenius, T., and Berqau, W. (1961), “In-situ Determination of Horizontal Ground Movements”, Proceedings, 5th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Paris, Vol.1, PP.418-485.

* Neher, h. P. and Wehnert, M. and Bonnier, P. G. (1999), “In Evaluation of Soft Soil Models Based on Trial Embankments”, from Internet, http://www.neher/veroeffentlichungenl/arizonanehaeo.dvi.

* Olson, E. and Fellow, A. (1998), “Settlement of Embankment on Soft Ground” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 124, No.4, PP. 278-287.

* SIGMA/W for Finite Element Stress and Deformation Analysis-Version 5 User's Guide, Geo-Slope International Ltd., (2002), from Internet,

* Skempton, A.W., (1944), ""Notes on the compressibilities of clays," Quarterly Journal of Geological. Soc, London, C (C: Parts 1 & 2).

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>