Rutting Prediction of Asphalt Mixtures Containing Treated and Untreated Recycled Concrete Aggregate


  • Nadheer Khaled Al-Bayati Mr. student department of civil enginnering
  • Mohammed Qader Ismael Prof.Dr, College of Engr. - Univ. of Baghdad



RCA, Rutting, Wheel tracking test, Dynamic stability


Rutting is a crucial element of the mechanical performance characteristics of asphalt mixtures, which was the primary target of this study. The task involved substituting various portions of virgin coarse aggregate with recycled concrete aggregate materials that had been treated or left untreated at rates ranging from 25 to 100%, with a constant increase of 25%. The treatment process of recycled concrete aggregate involved soaking in acetic acid, followed by a mechanical process for a short time inside a Los Angeles machine without the balls. This research utilized two primary tests: the standard Marshall test to identify the optimal asphalt contents and the volumetric characteristics of asphalt mixtures. The other one was the wheel tracking test, which involved manufacturing 11 slabs with a dimension of 30 x 40 × 5 cm and testing them under repeated wheel loads of 700 N at 55°C to investigate rutting resistance. The results demonstrate that using RCA had a negative impact on rutting resistance, where rut depth increased by 21.64% when using 100% pre-soaked treated RCA.



Download data is not yet available.


Abd, A.H., and Qassim, Z.I., 2017. Contributory factors related to permanent deformation of hot asphalt mixtures. Journal of Engineering, 23(3), pp. 20-34. Doi:10.31026/j.eng.2017.03.02.

Albayati, A.H., and Hamd, A.F., 2017. Influence of temperature upon permanent deformation parameters of asphalt concrete mixes. Journal of Engineering, 23(7), pp. 14-32. Doi:10.31026/j.eng.2017.07.02.

Al-Bayati, H.K.A. and Tighe, S.L., 2019. Effect of recycled concrete aggregate on rutting and stiffness characteristics of asphalt mixtures. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 31(10). Doi:10.1061/(ASCE)MT.19435533.0002810.

Ali, S., and Ismael, M.Q., 2021. Improvement of Marshall properties for hot mix asphalt by using ceramic fiber. Kufa Journal of Engineering, 12(1), pp. 48-58. Doi: 10.30572/2018/KJE/120104.

Almuhmdi, A.D., Muhmood, A.A., and Salih A.O., 2021. Effects of crushed glass waste as a fine aggregate on properties of hot asphalt mixture. Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences, 28(3), pp. 129-145.‏ Doi:10.25130/tjes.28.3.10.

Al-Saad, A.A., and Ismael, M.Q., 2022. Rutting prediction of hot mix asphalt mixtures reinforced by ceramic fibers. Journal of Applied Engineering Science, 20(4), pp. 1345-1354. Doi:10.5937/jaes0-38956.

Al-Saadi, A.A., and Ismael, M.Q., 2023. Improvement of moisture susceptibility for asphalt mixture with ceramic fiber. Journal of Engineering, 29(4), pp. 78–91. Doi: 10.31026/j.eng.2023.04.05.

Ayada, M., and Al-Shafi’i, N.T., 2022. Properties of normal strength concrete with treated crushed brick and recycled concrete as coarse aggregate. Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development, 26(2), pp. 30-39. Doi:10.31272/jeasd.26.2.4.

BS EN 12697-22, 2003. Bituminous mixtures. Test methods for hot mix asphalt. Part 22, wheel tracking test.

BS EN 12697-33, 2003. Bituminous mixtures. Test methods for hot mix Asphalt. Part 33, Specimen Prepared by Roller Compactor.

Chen, D., Chen, L., and Qian, Z., 2022. Impact of pavement rutting on vehicle safety: a closed-loop assessment method. Road Materials and Pavement Design, 24(10), pp. 1-16.‏ Doi:10.1080/14680629.2022.2146601.

Daquan, S., Yang, T., Guoqiang, S., Qi, P., Fan, Y., and Xingyi, Z., 2018. Performance evaluation of asphalt mixtures containing recycled concrete aggregates. International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 19(5), pp. 422-428. Doi:10.1080/10298436.2017.1402594.

Du, Y., Chen, J., Han, Z., and Liu, W., 2018. A review on solutions for improving rutting resistance of asphalt pavement and test methods. Construction and Building Materials, 168, pp. 893-905. Doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.02.151.

Henao-Pereira, J.P., Tovar-León, A.E., Castillo-Landinez, S.P., and Caicedo-Rodriguez, P.E., 2020. Traffic accidents from the perspective of data mining A review of the literature. AiBiRevista de Investigación, Administración e Ingeniería, 8(2), pp. 133-141. Doi: 10.15649/2346030X.743.

Ismael, M.Q., Fattah, M.Y., andJasim, A.F., 2021. Improving the rutting resistance of asphalt pavement modified with the carbon nanotubes additive. Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 12(4), pp. 3619-3627. Doi:10.1016/j.asej.2021.02.038.

Ismael, M.Q., Fattah, M.Y., andJasim, A.F., 2022. Permanent deformation characterization of stone matrix asphalt reinforced by different types of fibers. Journal of Engineering, 28(2), pp. 99-116. Doi:10.31026/j.eng.2022.02.07.

Ismael, M.Q., Joni, H.H., and Fattah, M.Y., 2023. Neural network modeling of rutting performance for sustainable asphalt mixtures modified by industrial waste alumina. Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 14(5), P. 101972. Doi:10.1016/j.asej.2022.101972.

Ismail, S., and Ramli, M., 2017. Engineering properties of treated recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) for structural applications. Construction and Building Materials, 44, pp. 464–476. Doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.03.014.

Mawat, H.Q., and Ismael, M.Q., 2020. Assessment of moisture susceptibility for asphalt mixtures modified by carbon fibers. Civil Engineering Journal, 6(2), pp. 304-317. Doi:10.28991/cej-2020-03091472.

Nazal, H.H., and Ismael, M.Q., 2019. Evaluation the moisture susceptibility of asphalt mixtures containing demolished concrete waste materials. Civil Engineering Journal, 5(4), pp. 845-855. Doi:10.28991/cej-2019-03091293.

Ngxongo, B.N., and Alopi, D., 2017. The effect of rutting in flexible pavement as a result of aggregate gradation on asphalt mixes. European Journal of Advances in Engineering and Technology, 4 (10), pp. 717–722.

Ouyang, K., Liu, J., Liu, S., Song, B., Guo, H., Li, G., and Shi, C., 2023. Influence of pre-treatment methods for recycled concrete aggregate on the performance of recycled concrete: A review. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 188, P. 106717. Doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2022.106717.

Peng, Y., and Unluer, C., 2023. Modeling the mechanical properties of recycled aggregate concrete using hybrid machine learning algorithms. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 190, P. 106812. Doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2022.106812.

Poltue, T., Suddeepong, A., Horpibulsuk, S., Samingthong, W., Arulrajah, A., and Rashid, A.S.A., 2020. Strength development of recycled concrete aggregate stabilized with fly ash-rice husk ash based geopolymer as pavement base material. Road Materials and Pavement Design, 21(8), pp. 2344-2355.‏ Doi:10.1080/14680629.2019.1593884.

Raof, H.B., and Ismael, M.Q., 2019. Effect of polyphosphoric acid on rutting resistance of asphalt concrete mixture. Civil Engineering Journal, 5(9), pp. 1929-1940. Doi:10.28991/cej-2019-03091383.

Saleem, A.A., and Ismael, M.Q., 2020. Assessment resistance potential to moisture damage and rutting for HMA mixtures reinforced by steel fibers. Civil Engineering Journal, 6(9), pp. 1726-1738. Doi:10.28991/cej-2020-03091578.

Sapkota, K., Yaghoubi, E., Wasantha, P.L.P., Van Staden, R., and Fragomeni, S., 2023. Mechanical characteristics and durability of HMA made of recycled aggregates. Sustainability, 15(6), P. 5594. Doi:10.3390/su15065594.

SCRB, 2003. Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge. Section R/9, Hot-Mix Asphalt Concrete Pavement, Revised Edition. State Corporation of Roads and Bridges. Ministry of Housing and Construction, Republic of Iraq.

Taher, Z.K., and Ismael, M.Q., 2022. Rutting prediction of hot mix asphalt mixtures modified by nano silica and subjected to aging process. Civil Engineering Journal, 9, pp. 1-14. Doi:10.28991/CEJ-SP2023-09-01

Taher, Z.K., and Ismael, M.Q., 2023. Moisture Susceptibility of Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures Modified by Nano Silica and Subjected to Aging Process. Journal of Engineering, 29(4), pp. 128-143. Doi:10.31026/j.eng.2023.04.09.

Tahmoorian, F., Samali, B., Yeaman, J., and Mirzababaei, M., 2022. Evaluation of volumetric performance of asphalt mixtures containing recycled construction aggregate (RCA). International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 23(7), pp. 2191-2205.‏ Doi: 10.1080/10298436.2020.1849686.

Venudharan, V., and Biligiri, K.P., 2020. Rutting performance of asphalt-rubber gap-graded mixtures: evaluation through statistical and reliability approaches. Road Materials and Pavement Design, 21(1), pp. S2-S18. ‏Doi: 10.1080/14680629.2019.1663752.

Wang, H., Liu, X., and Hao, P., 2008. Evaluating the shear resistance of hot mix asphalt by the direct shear test. Journal of Testing and Evaluation, 36 (6), pp. 485-491. Doi:10.1520/JTE101732

Zhang, H., Yang, H., Li, Y., Fu, Q., and Rui, H., 2022. Laboratory evaluation of dynamic characteristics of a new high-modulus asphalt mixture. Sustainability, 14(19), P. 11838. Doi:10.3390/su141911838.

Zuluaga-Astudillo, D.A., Rondón-Quintana, H.A., and Zafra-Mejía, C.A., 2021. Mechanical performance of gilsonite modified asphalt mixture containing recycled concrete aggregate. Applied Sciences, 11(10), P. 4409. Doi:10.3390/app11104409.

How to Cite

“Rutting Prediction of Asphalt Mixtures Containing Treated and Untreated Recycled Concrete Aggregate” (2024) Journal of Engineering, 30(02), pp. 105–117. doi:10.31026/j.eng.2024.02.07.

Publication Dates



Similar Articles

1-10 of 502

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.