Improving the Accuracy of Handheld GPS Receivers Based on NMEA File Generating and Least Squares Adjustment

  • Zahraa Ezzulddin Hussein, Ass. Lect. College of Engineering-University of Baghdad
Keywords: handheld GPS, least square adjustment, accuracy, NMEA file.


This study aims to improve the quality of satellites signals in addition to increase accuracy level delivered from handheld GPS data by building up a program to read and decode data of handheld GPS. Where, the NMEA protocol file, which stands for the National Marine Electronics Association, was generated from handheld GPS receivers in real time using in-house design program. The NMEA protocol file provides ability to choose points positions with best status level of satellites such as number of visible satellite, satellite geometry, and GPS mode, which are defined as accuracy factors. In addition to fix signal quality, least squares technique was adopted in this study to minimize the residuals of GPS observations and enhance its accuracy. Moreover, one hundred reference control points were established using geodetic GPS receiver (GR5 receiver), and fixing them in a specified sites of the University of Baghdad, Al Jadriya campus, which selected as a study area, to evaluate positioning accuracy of handheld GPS before and after adjustment. The study findings showed significant decrease in root mean square error (RMSE) in both horizontal and vertical directions from 9.4 m to 3.2 m and 6.8 m to 2.4 m respectively.



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How to Cite
Hussein, Z. (2016) “Improving the Accuracy of Handheld GPS Receivers Based on NMEA File Generating and Least Squares Adjustment”, Journal of Engineering, 22(5), pp. 162-174. Available at: (Accessed: 6June2020).